#### RES - Fusion Reactor 1

#resfusion1
The Tokamak and Stellarator are challenged by introducing the Looperator.
Chapter 1: What does a baseball have in common with a fusion reactor?
https://lnkd.in/ethBQ--B : Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology > Vol.10 No.1, January 2024
As with all unequal comparisons, this one may be flawed, but it may assist in the comprehension of the fusion reactor, which is characterised by a spherical magnetic field. The baseball demonstrates two equal pieces of leather sewn together to form a sphere. The stitching, which is visible on the surface of the sphere, reveals four semicircular arcs connected in an endless loop in the form of a double helix. In any fusion reactor designed for electromagnetic plasma confinement, once the plasma has been ignited, the electrons and ions interact with the magnetic field by aligning their axes of angular momentum parallel to the magnetic field lines. This is where the baseball seam comes into play. As previously mentioned, it consists of four semicircular arcs. Each time an electron or ion passes through one of the four arcs on its orbit, the spin changes from an up spin to a down spin by reversing the direction of rotation four times. This can be likened to a baseball being hit eccentrically by a bat four times in quick succession, causing it to spin in opposite directions. Which way would the baseball go? To anticipate the answer, the torques of its rotation would cancel each other out, resulting in the ball flying straight ahead. This phenomenon can be observed in the plasma of a fusion reactor, where the electrons and ions follow the path defined by the magnetic field lines. This results in the turbulence within the plasma being effectively prevented by creating a perfect fluid-dynamic equilibrium of the transverse forces. Construction of such a fusion reactor could begin soon.
#looperator #solution4fusion #resfusion1 #plasmaphysics #isaset2024 #islop2024 #gmson2024 #grcresd2024 #optics2024 #asktheinventor #fusionenergy #plasma #plasmaphysics #excellence from #theländ
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#### RES - Fusion Reactor 2

#resfusion2
The Tokamak and Stellarator are challenged by introducing the Looperator.
Chapter 2: The Mystery of the Looperator. https://lnkd.in/ethBQ--B : Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology>Vol.10 No.1, January 24 The double helix reveals an underlying principle for balancing the dynamic forces within a plasma volume. Regardless of whether the plasma vessel is in the form of a tokamak, an annular stellarator or a Looper, the magnetic field generated by the coils is stronger on the inner side of the plasma vessel facing the centre than on the outer side. As a consequence of this asymmetry in the magnetic field, the fermions are compelled to deviate from their assigned magnetic field lines, thereby increasing the risk of collision with the inner wall of the plasma vessel. This potential collision could result in the immediate shutdown of the fusion reactor to prevent significant damage. To compensate for this asymmetry, the tokamak employs additional coils that introduce a poloidal component to the toroidal magnetic field, thereby causing the field lines to twist. In contrast, the Wendelstein 7x stellarator necessitates hybrid coils that combine toroidal and poloidal field components in a computer-controlled, sophisticated design. In contrast, the Looperator does not require any additional coils beyond the Helmholtz coils to produce a spherical magnetic field. The twisting of the magnetic field lines in each individual layer of the plasma volume is achieved without any further intervention. In the context of the spark of invention, the blue and green lines of the figure of eight symbolise not only eternity and sustainability, but also the regular alternation of the blue and green lines from inside to outside in asymmetric loops. If we now consider the figure of eight as a spatial figure and assume that an equally strong Lorentz force acts in both halves of this spatial double helix, a logical explanation for the self-organised twisting of the magnetic field lines becomes a realistic concept. The magnetic field generated by Helmholtz coils on a Looperator is neither toroidal nor poloidal; rather, it is spheroidal and generates magnetic field lines, each of which lies on the surface of a transformation sphere of one radius. The endless loops of magnetic field lines organise themselves on the surface of the uniform transformation spheres. Electrons, together with nuclei of deuterium and tritium are precisely guided along the magnetic field lines, colliding with each other at speeds in excess of 1000 km/s and temperatures of 100 to 400 million degrees Celsius, and fusing to form helium by releasing highly energetic neutrons that do not follow the magnetic field lines and large amounts of thermal energy.
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#### RES - Fusion Reactor 3

#resfusion3
The Tokamak and Stellarator are challenged by introducing the Looperator.
Chapter 3 : A Choreography for Quantum Mechanics.
https://lnkd.in/ethBQ--B Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology > Vol.10 No.1, January 2024. Within the double helix, electrons and ions are subject to rotational forces transverse to the magnetic field. The Looperator's quantum mechanical choreography for electrons and ions, which involves reversing the direction of rotation of the particles four times, creates an equilibrium by eliminating the gyral effects. When this choreography is applied, an abrupt fourfold reversal of the intrinsic spin of the particles results in an angular momentum plane defined by four joints of the four semicircular arcs of the plasma. This results in the cancellation of the torques of the particles, thereby achieving orbital stability through an angular sum of 720 degrees. This is necessary for the particles to return to the beginning of their orbit in the same spin state. Furthermore, the spherical magnetic field of the double helix causes the particles to rotate once around their spin axis, resulting in an angular sum of 360 degrees. The equilibrium of the magnetic forces in the plasma volume is thus achieved by exploiting the intrinsic spin of the particles. The change in spin direction within fractions of a femtosecond prevents the formation of gyral drifts due to the spin-induced precession of the particles, so that the particles follow the magnetic field lines exactly and return to a starting point on the respective path with the same spin state. The magnetic field required for this process is generated exclusively by the Helmholtz coils, which produce a spherical magnetic field with a central magnetic field line surrounded by a multitude of eccentric magnetic field lines. Since electrons and ions possess mass, they are subject to centrifugal and gyration forces, which are employed to disrupt the accumulation of gyral effects by altering the direction of spin four times in the double helix's plane of angular momentum.
#looperator #solution4fusion #resfusion3 #plasmaphysics #rsenergy2024 #isaset2024 #islop2024 #gmson2024 #grcresd2024 #optics2024 #asktheinventor #fusionenergy #plasma #plasmaphysics #excellence from #theländ
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#### RES - Fusion Reactor 4

#resfusion4
The Tokamak and Stellarator are challenged by introducing the Looperator.
Chapter 4: The Looperator uses mirror symmetry to balance bifurcation.
https://lnkd.in/ethBQ--B : Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology > Vol.10 No.1, January 2024. The Looperator is designed for the confinement of plasma within a vessel, exhibiting the shape of a double helix, which is surrounded by a plurality of Helmholtz coils. The plasma volume is defined by a central magnetic field line composed of four equal semicircular arcs, which define four magnetic planes connected by four joints. These joints define a common plane of angular momentum, which lies on the surface of a central transformation sphere around the centre point of the fusion reactor. The off-centre magnetic field lines are arranged in several concentric layers within the tubular surfaces of the double helix, all of which lie on the same transformation sphere around the off-centred midpoints. With respect to the central magnetic field line, Helmholtz coils are arranged concentrically at regular intervals transverse to the magnetically induced flow of the plasma and create a spherical magnetic field which forces equal path lengths for particles of spin quantum number 1/2 in two halves of a spherical double helix, which are mirror images of each other at a zero line and define two periods of a ring-shaped oscillation. Due to the chiasm of the double helix, each individual magnetic field line represents an endless loop divided into two halves with equal path lengths for ions and electrons, which are guided in concentric layers of the magnetic field. Due to the mirror symmetry of the magnetic field, the Lorentz force is the same in both halves of the double helix and causes the charged particles to rotate around the magnetic field lines in spirals of equal path length in both halves of the double helix. In contrast to modern magnetic confinement fusion experiments, where additional coils are needed to induce a twist in the magnetic field, no such additional coils are required.
#looperator #solution4fusion #resfusion4 #plasmaphysics #rsenergy2024 #isaset2024 #islop2024 #gmson2024 #grcresd2024 #optics2024 #asktheinventor #fusionenergy #plasma #plasmaphysics #excellence from #theländ
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#### RES - Fusion Reactor 5

#resfusion5
The Tokamak and Stellarator are challenged by introducing the Looperator.
Chapter 5 : The Looperator Opens Up a new Category in Fusion Technology.
https://lnkd.in/ethBQ--B : Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology > Vol.10 No.1, January 2024. The Looperator has been designed for the purpose of permanent magnetic plasma confinement, which is achieved by a quantum-effective choreography of its induction system, which operates in accordance with the principles of general relativity. The first part of the invention, which directly leads into quantum physics, describes the quantum-effective choreography for the intrinsic spin properties of electrons and ions, which has been designed for permanent plasma confinement. The second part of the invention describes a new magnetic field constellation, which makes it possible to implement a plasma vessel with a very simple geometrical order. This can be constructed with serial components in modular assemblies for the various subsystems that make up the fusion reactor as a whole. The fluid dynamics of the plasma resulting from the electromagnetic excitation inside the plasma vessel of the Looperator can be described by forced ring oscillations, which establish a fluid dynamic equilibrium of the electromagnetically induced forces. In order to exploit the intrinsic spin properties of electrons and ions, which defy any visual representation, a combination of three geometric operations is required, namely translation, rotation and the Lorentz transformation. The combination of these transformations, also known as the Poincaré group, is necessary to demonstrate the veracity of general relativity. A comprehensive geometrical analysis revealed that within each individual concentric layer of the tubular plasma volume, the looped magnetic field lines for particles with a spin quantum number of 1/2 are of equal length and lie on the surface of a transformation sphere of uniform radius.
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#### RES - Fusion Reactor 6

#resfusion6
The Tokamak and Stellarator are challenged by introducing the Looperator.
Chapter 6 : Operability and Scalability. https://lnkd.in/ethBQ--B : Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology > Vol.10 No.1, January 2024. The fusion reactor, which includes its power supply and an energy conversion system, can be situated both on land and in space, and can be integrated into a vehicle, particularly a watercraft. The plasma vessel itself is composed of a number of identical vessel modules, either circular or oval in cross-section, arranged between an inner and an outer radius around the central point, concentric with the central magnetic field line. These modules can be bolted or welded together to form four arcuate units. The magnetic field, in the form of a double helix, ensures that the plasma volume follows the cross-section of the plasma vessel with a distance to an inner shell. The Helmholtz coils are assigned to the individual vessel modules and have a radial distance to the plasma vessel as well as longitudinal distances to each other, which can be defined by sector angles of the radius around the central midpoint of the Looperator. The central magnetic field line of the fusion reactor is surrounded by a number of concentric layers for the arrangement of off-centre magnetic field lines with analogous peaks and junctions. Following the ignition of the plasma, electrons and protons of the heavy isotopes of hydrogen separate from each other, resulting in the generation of a Lorenz force by the Helmholtz coils within the magnetic field formed by the double helix. This force determines both the direction of the magnetodynamic flow and the orientation of the angular momentum axis and the angular momentum plane of the particles. The two periods of a ring oscillation are divided into two mirror-inverted halves by at least one zero line between opposite connecting points of the central magnetic field line. This results in the distinction of the ring oscillations in the individual layers of the plasma volume, which are each characterised by layer-specific frequencies. The frequency band of these oscillations extends from 50 Hz on the outside of the plasma volume to several kilo Hz in the region of the central magnetic field. The diameter of the plasma vessel is estimated to be between 0.30 and 0.40 metres. A diameter of the plasma vessel of only 0.30 to 0.40 metres will be sufficient to ignite the plasma, allowing the construction of compact fusion reactors. The diameter of the plasma volume enclosed in the plasma vessel is a minimum of 0.3 to a maximum of several metres.
#Looperator #solution4fusion #resfusion6 #plasmaphysics #rsenergy2024 #isaset2024 #islop2024 #gmson2024 #grcresd2024 #optics2024 #asktheinventor #fusionenergy #plasma #plasmaphysics #excellence from #theländ
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#### RES - Fusion Reactor 7

#resfusion7
The Tokamak and Stellarator are challenged by the introduction of the Looperator.
Chapter 7: Time is perceived as a continuum of loops. https://lnkd.in/ethBQ--B: Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology > Vol.10 No.1, January 2024. Orbits are not only observed in atoms, where electrons orbit around the nucleus, but can also be identified as a universal structure of space, manifesting not only in atoms, crystals and molecules, but also on a macroscopic and even cosmic scale. The nuclear fusion reactor provides an exemplary demonstration of a macroscopic orbital model. In this model, both the radii of the corresponding transformation spheres and the loops themselves are of equal length due to the regularity of a spherical magnetic field. This regularity can be observed both at the eccentric magnetic field lines and at the central red magnetic field line. A distinctive feature of the double helix is the mirror symmetry of two periods of a regular oscillation. This symmetry is employed to create a fluid-dynamic equilibrium in the plasma of a fusion reactor. The thickness of the coloured lines displayed here represents the radii of gyration for charged particles, including deuterium and tritium nuclei, electrons, and others, in the outermost layer of the magnetically confined plasma within a double-helix plasma vessel. Periodic oscillations of elementary particles are a universal structural principle, detectable both in a single atom and in the universe in general. These oscillations can be exploited to advantage for permanent magnetic plasma confinement. This technique enables the harnessing of nuclear fusion in a timescale of one to two years. As the concept is scalable, such fusion reactors could be installed in ships, for example.
#Looperator #solution4fusion #resfusion7 #plasmaphysics #rsenergy2024 #isaset2024 #islop2024 #gmson2024 #grcresd2024 #optics2024 #asktheinventor #fusionenergy #plasma #plasmaphysics #excellence from #theländ
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#### RES - Fusion Reactor 8

#resfusion8
The Tokamak and Stellarator are challenged by introducing the Looperator.
Chapter 8: The angular momentum plane of the spherical double helix acts like a Bloch wall. The electrons and ions in the plasma are accelerated by the Lorentz force to speeds of up to 1000 km/s and are subject to gravity due to their mass. In the angular momentum plane, defined by the joints of the four semicircular arcs of the double helix magnetic field lines are being twisted four times by ninety degrees. Gravity here will cause a torque, both through centrifugal force and a shearing force caused by the gyration of the particles around the magnetic field lines. This torque prevents the formation of unwanted turbulence in the plasma by changing the spin direction of the particles four times within one orbit. This is achieved through the application of centrifugal and shear forces, as represented by the white and red arrows, respectively. It is important to note that these forces should not be resisted; rather, they should be utilised to counteract the formation of turbulence in the plasma. Newton's third law posits that the magnetic field generated by the Helmholtz coils, with the Lorentz force acting in the direction of the plasma flow, induces an electric vortex field perpendicular to the Lorentz force. This electric vortex field causes electrons and ions to orbit around the magnetic field lines. The greater the strength of the magnetic field, the larger the orbital radius of the electrons and ions around each magnetic field line. In conventional fusion reactors, the orbital motion of the particles disrupts the layered structure of the magnetic field, which is a contributing factor to the relatively short lifetime of fusion experiments. The video animation illustrates that in the angular momentum plane defined by the four nodes, both the centrifugal force and the shear force cause the spin to transition from a down spin to an up spin. By changing the spin direction four times in one revolution, the electrons and ions are unable to follow the centrifugal and shear forces acting across the plasma flow direction. In conventional fusion reactors, this orbital motion of the particles destroys the layered structure of the magnetic field, which is why the lifetime of fusion experiments has been relatively short. The electrons and ions thus develop the trajectory fidelity required for permanent magnetic plasma confinement. Additional coils are not required as all magnetic field lines lie on the surface of a one-radius transformation sphere.
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology > Vol.10 No.1, January 2024. https://lnkd.in/ethBQ--B
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#### RES - Fusion Reactor 9

#resfusion9
The Tokamak and the Stellarator are challenged by the Looperator
Chapter 9: The Integration of Dark Matter in the Orbital Model
The assumption that antimatter exists implies that every subatomic particle, including protons, neutrons, electrons, leptons, and quarks, has an invisible twin. Furthermore, antimatter must be present in every atom, crystal, molecule, and terrestrial and extraterrestrial object. However, despite this, it has not been possible to observe antimatter. What is known is that: Antimatter does not respond to the strong interaction that holds atomic nuclei together. However, indirect evidence of its presence is possible in the weak interaction, where an exothermic reaction occurs when certain particles collide. For the spherical magnetic field fusion reactor shown here, this can mean that the antimatter contributes significantly to the heating of the plasma and thus to the induction system described. In the video, the blue sphere represents the transformation sphere for the ghostly twin of an electron in red, which is diametrically opposite to a corresponding electron in the orbital model presented here. The Lorentz transformation results in a permanent interpenetration of the transformation sphere for electrons and ions with the blue transformation sphere for antimatter particles, which can also be described as entanglement.
#Looperator #solution4fusion #resfusion7 #plasmaphysics #rsenergy2024 #isaset2024 #islop2024 #gemson2024 #optics2024 #asktheinventor #excellence from #theländ
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#### RES - Fusion Reactor 10

#resfusion10
The Tokamak and Stellarator are challenged by the Looperator
Chapter 10 : Integrating dark matter into the orbital model of the Looperator. Please see also Chapter 9. In the video, the blue particle illustrates the ghostly twin of an electron in red. Unexpected support came from Dr Reginald B. Little :
"The (Little Rules and Effect) describe the cause of phenomena of physical and chemical transformations on the basis of spin antisymmetry and the consequent magnetism of the most fundamental elements of leptons and quarks and in particular electrons, protons and neutrons causing orbital motions and mutual revolutionary motions (spinrevorbital) to determine the structure and the dynamics of nucleons, nuclei, atoms, molecules, bulk structures and even stellar structures. By considering the Little Effect in multi-body, confined, pressured, dense, temperate, and physicochemically open systems, new mechanisms and processes will be discovered and explanations are given to the stability of multifermionic systems for continuum of unstable perturbatory states with settling to stable discontinuum states (in accord to the quantum approximation) to avoid chaos in ways that have not been known or understood. On the basis of the Little Effect, the higher order terms of the Hamiltonian provide Einstein’s missing link between quantum mechanics and relativity for a continuum of unstable states. Such continuum of unstable, hidden states determines fractional charges and fractured dipoles (orbitals) that strongly couple with limitations of larger space and shorter times for coupling quantum magnetism (spinrevorbitals) to macromagnetism and gravity (via phasal and group dispersions,respectively) and vice versa and for coupling orbital electricity (spintransorbitals) to macroelectricity and classical (and heat) mechanics (via phasal and group dispersions, respectively) and vice versa."Read more about the spinrevorbital : https://lnkd.in/e63nFZp7
Dr. Little's comment to #resfusion10 :
Thank you for welcome to Res-Institute. Congratulations on your invention. I am not a designer of nuclear reactors. I noticed your video and the motion of the particle in orbit with it spinning and simultanteously revolving in the space it orbits is identical to nano and molecular scale orbital, revolution and spin of subatomic particle by what I call spinrevorbital for describing the motion and properties of electrons, neutrons and protons on molecular and nano scales. I think your system is macroscopic. I am impressed by the similarity of the motions on subatomic and molecular to nanoscales in my model and your macroscopic design of nuclear reactors. Congratulations, you invented the nuclear reactor as you illustrated. I just recognized an analog of the image to my atomic scale model.
Thanks Reginald B. Little
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#### RES - Fusion Reactor 11

#resfusion11
A short story about how to bring the fire of nuclear fusion to Earth, to be continued in several chapters.
10th Chapter: Nested Orbits in Our Planetary System
What is true for the magnetic field of a plasma volume whose magnetic layers are defined by a double helix may also be true for multi periodical space-time loops of the universe. Our earth, looked at in a first perspective was believed to be the center of the universe with planets and stars orbiting around it. In a second perspective brought about by Copernicus we had to acknowledge that the earth, among other planets, is orbiting the sun. Johannes Kepler while working on Tycho Brahe's extensive collection of very precise observation data in Prague began to design a new astronomical system based on the Copernican system. He identified the eccentric orbit of Mars as an ellipse by assuming varying orbital velocities. In completion of his work in Prague in 1606 he published his findings in 1609 as first and second Kepler laws in the book entitled "Astronomia Nova". Since Albert Einstein's publication on a general theory of relativity in 1915, describing the curvature of space and time, it is about time to change perspective again, this time with respect to the universe as a whole. It may well be that all nine planets and the sun itself are sharing the very same radius of an unitary transformation sphere, swiveling around a gravitational center somewhere in the middle of the Milky Way. Today we know that both the sun and the planets are orbiting a super massive black hole by the name of Saggitarius A. Assuming that the orbit of each planet and the sun itself is laying on the surface of a transformation sphere, having an unitary radius and rotating around Sagittarius A would be another explanation for the elliptic orbits of the planets and their own gravitational center the sun. That is why Tycho Brahe's original idea that the orbits had to be a combination of uniformly traversed circular orbits comes close to the postulated third perspective presented here. The combination of two circular motions causes the formation of a loop. Loops formed in this way are known in two-dimensional space as epicycloids and hypocycloids. Looked at from this new perspective the elliptical orbits of the planets around the sun and the orbit of the sun itself are epi- and hypocycloidal, while originally they had one common radius as shown in the video. Nested orbits around black holes cause a distortion of the original sphere and determine our perception of elliptical orbits for the nine planets and the sun itself. Applied to the entire universe, this would verify the theory of a polycentric universe which has nested orbits, fitting into the quantum regime.
#solution4fusion #resfusion10 #astrophysics #heliophysics #newperspective #isaset2024 #islop2024 #gmson2024 #grcresd2024 #optics2024 #asktheinventor #theländ
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